Internet of Things

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The Internet of Things (IoT)

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a scenario where any objects or people are given unique identifiers and provided with the ability to transfer data over network. IoT has emerged from the convergence of wireless technologies, micro electromechanical system (MEMS) and internet. Things, in IoT refers to variety of devices like heart monitoring implants for a person, biochip transponder on farm animal, an automobile having built-in sensors that alerts the driver, field operation devices used to help fire fighters or any other object.

Current example:- In Smart thermostat system, the user can adjust heating settings from internet connected devices like smartphones. The user can easily switch off/on the heating or air conditioner.

Internet of Things was first mentioned by Kevin Ashton, cofounder and executive director of Auto-ID Center at MIT in a presentation to Procter & Gamble. Here’s how he explained the future of Internet of Things:

Today computers -- and, therefore, the Internet -- are almost wholly dependent on human beings for information. Nearly all of the roughly 50 petabytes of data available on the Internet were first captured and created by human beings by typing, pressing a record button, taking a digital picture or scanning a bar code.

The problem is, people have limited time, attention and accuracy -- all of which means they are not very good at capturing data about things in the real world. If we had computers that knew everything there was to know about things -- using data they gathered without any help from us -- we would be able to track and count everything and greatly reduce waste, loss and cost. We would know when things needed replacing, repairing or recalling and whether they were fresh or past their best


The first internet appliance was a Coke machine at Carnegie Melon University in early 1980s.
The programmers were able to connect to the machine over internet, check the status of the machine and determine whether there will be a cold drink awaiting for them or not.


Environmental Monitoring

Sensors are used to protect the environment by monitoring air, water quality, atmospheric or soil conditions and also includes monitoring movements of wildlife and their habitats.

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International Data Corporation expects IoT technology and services spending to generate global revenue of $4.8 trillion in 2012 and $8.9 trillion by 2020, growing at a compound annual rate (CAGR) of 7.9%

According to Business Insider, to be part of Internet of Things,
an item need to have 7 key

  • Sensors

  • Internet Connectivity

  • Processors

  • Energy efficiency

  • Cost effectiveness

  • Quality and reliability

  • Security

The Advantages of IoT


Having more information helps in making better decisions. Whether it is decisions to know what to buy at the grocery store or if company has enough widgets and supplies. Knowledge is power and more knowledge is better.


The second advantage of IoT is monitoring. Knowing the exact quantity of supplies or the air quality in home, can provide more information. Monitoring the expiration of products can and will improve safety.


The amount of time saved because of IoT could be quite large. And in today’smodern life, we all need more time.


The biggest advantage of IoT is saving money. If the price of the tagging and monitoring equi pment is less than the amount of money saved, then the Internet of Things will be widely adopted.

The Current limitations of IoT


Currently, there is no international standard of compatibility for the tagging and monitoring equipment. This disadvantage is the most easy to overcome. The manufacturing companies of these equipment just need to agree to a standard, such as Bluetooth, USB, etc. There is nothing new or innovative needed.


TAs with all complex systems, there are more opportunities of failure. For example, let’s say that both you and your spouse each get a message saying that your milk has expired, and both of you purchase milk. As a result, you and your spouse have purchased twice the amount that you need. Or maybe a bug in the software ends up automatically ordering a new ink cartridge for your printer.


With all IoT data being transmitted, the risk of losing privacy increases. For example, how well encrypted data be kept and transmitted? Your neighbors or employers might get to know about your medications that you are taking or your financial situation.


Imagine a notorious hacker changing your prescription. Or if a store automatically ships you a flavor that you do not like, or a product that is already expired. As a result, safety is ultimately in the hands of the consumer to verify.
While the Internet of Things has several major disadvantages, the main advantage is that IoT will ultimately save a lot of time and money of consumers and companies. As a result, IoT is almost guaranteed to become much more common in upcoming years. We just have to be aware of the disadvantages and keep an eye out for issues.

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